此次考试试题来源于Mayo W. Hazeltine所写的一篇学术评价，宗旨是关于达尔文在今世科学中的地位。
People have wondered for a long time how their personalities and behaviors are formed. It is not easy to explain why one person is intelligent and another is not,or why one is cooperative and another is competitive.
In his autobiography，Darwin himself speaks of his intellectual powers with extraordinary modesty. He points out that he always experienced much difficulty in expressing himself clearly and concisely, but 46 he believes that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations, He disclaimed the possession of any great quickness of apprehension or wit, such as distinguished Huxley. 47 He asserts, also, that his power to follow a long and purely abstract train of thought was very limited, for which reason he felt certain that he never could have succeeded with mathematics. His memory, too, he described as extensive, but hazy. So poor in one sense was it that he never could remember for more than a few days a single date or a line of poetry. 48 On the other hand, he did not accept as well founded the charge made by some of his critics that, while he was a good observer, he had no power of reasoning.
Social scientists are,of course,extremely interested in these types of questions. (61) They want to explain why we possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors. There are no clear answers yet,but two distinct schools of thought on the matter have developed. As one might expect,the two approaches are very different from each other. The controversy is often conveniently referred to as “nature vs. nurture.”
This, he thought, could not be true, because the "Origin of Species" is one long argument from the beginning to the end, and has convinced many able men. No one, he submits, could have written it without possessing some power of reasoning. He was willing to assert that "I have a fair share of invention, and of common sense or judgment, such as every fairly successful lawyer or doctor must have, but not, I believe, in any higher degree."49 He adds humbly that perhaps he was "superior to the common run of men in noticing things which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully."
(62) Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological factors. (63) That our environment has little,if anything,to do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior is central to this theory.
Writing in the last year of his life, he expressed the opinion that in two or three respects his mind had changed during the preceding twenty or thirty years. Up to the age of thirty or beyond it poetry of many kinds gave him great pleasure. Formerly, too, pictures had given him considerable, and music very great, delight. In 1881, however, he said: "Now for many years I cannot endure to read a line of poetry; I have tried lately to read Shakspeare, and found it so intolerably dull that it nauseated me. I have also almost lost my taste for pictures or music. Music generally sets me thinking too energetically of what I have been at work on, instead of giving me pleasure. I retain some taste for fine scenery, but it does not cause me the exquisite delight which it formerly did." 50 Darwin was convinced that the loss of these tastes was not only a loss of happiness, but might possibly be injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character.
Behaviorists, in contrast, say
Taken to an extreme,this theory maintains that our behavior is pre-determined to such a great degree that we are almost completely governed by our instincts.
that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprivedof many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whitesenjoy. (1990年65题)
Those who support the “nurture” theory,that is,they advocate education,are often called behaviorists. They claim that our environment is more important than our biologically based instincts in determining how we will act. A behaviorist,B. F. Skinner,sees humans as beings whose behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings.
46 he believes that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations,
(64) The behaviorists maintain that,like machines,humans respond to environmental stimuli as the basis of their behavior.
Let us examine the different explanations about one human characteristic,intelligence,offered by the two theories.
Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behaviorpatterns are largely determined by biological factors。(1990年62题)
(65) Supporters of the “nature” theory insist that we are born with a certain capacity for learning that is biologically determined. Needless to say： They don''t believe that factors in the environment have much influence on what is basically a predetermined characteristic. On the other hand,behaviorists argue that our intelligence levels are the product of our experiences.
(66) Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.
本句的句法结构为主语、谓语加上以that携带的宾语从句，句子主干为he believes that....that从句的组织是主语"this very difficulty "加上含有情态动词的谓语"may have" 及其宾语the....advantage of forcing..., and thus enabling...。Of后边forcing和enabling组成并列结构，共同修饰advantage。并列结构的后半片段中，出现了thus enabling...，考前丰盛研讨过过去课题的同桌简单窥见，那几个布局和03年陆壹题的thus subjecting...这一个结构大约完全同样，能够行使"从而"、"由此"等词来拍卖。。
The social and political implications of these two theories are profound. (67) In the United States,blacks often score below whites on standardized intelligence tests. This leads some “nature”proponents to conclude that blacks are biologically inferior to whites.
本题中的词汇考试的地方中多方面都以价值观考试的地点。句子中的compensating 曾在97年75题出现过，advantage 在90年65题初中结业生升学考试过，force在三千年7三题初级中学毕业生升学考试过， observation在0二年6二题初级中学毕业生升学考试过。
And it is imagined bymany that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared withthese processes, and that they have to be acquired by a sort of specialtraining. (1993年74题)
(68) Behaviorists,in contrast,say that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprived of many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whites enjoy.
Most people think neither of these theories can yet fully explain human behavior.
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Some philosophers argue
that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange ofduties and entitlements. (1997年72题)
The Greeks assumed thatthe structure of language had some connection with the process of thought,which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languagescould be。(2004年61题)